Types of bone grafts for dental treatment

Table of Contents

The lack of attention to the loss of a tooth results not only in difficulties in eating and speaking – in addition to the obvious damage to personal image – but to this is added the maxillary atrophy caused by the lack of stimulation of the tooth bone. the gum without dentition.

This problem, which makes the insertion of permanent dental implants extremely difficult, fortunately can be solved through a bone graft, a procedure that is carried out with bone from other parts of the patient’s body, a donor, artificial materials and even animals.

Where is the bone that they are going to graft me from?

To place a fixed dental prosthesis, a titanium post must be anchored directly into the gum, which requires healthy, firm bone tissue. In the absence of these characteristics, it is essential to perform surgery to graft bone in the affected maxillary area, so the dentist may suggest one of the following procedures depending on the patient’s context:

Importance of bone grafts in dental treatment

1. Autograft

Also known as autologous graft, it consists of removing bone tissue from the same patient to transplant it to the gum. This bone is generally obtained from the back of the jaw, chin, hip or leg, so both the operated area and the donor require subsequent recovery time.

As it is cellular tissue from the same individual, immunological rejection and transmission of infectious diseases is avoided.

2. Allograft

The so-called allogeneic graft is obtained from deceased donors, whose remains are sterilized and preserved in tissue banks.

In this case, the advantage is that the patient does not have to undergo the procedure of removing bone from his own body and that, instead, it can be obtained almost immediately from a donation bank. On the other hand, there is the possibility of disease transmission or tissue rejection.

3. Xenografts

As indicated by the root of its prefix – “xeno” – it refers to the graft of “foreign” tissue that is made to a person, that is, when it comes from a different animal or even plant species. In this case, chemically deproteinized pork, beef or bovine bone is usually used.

Obtaining this type of graft is relatively simple and basically does not represent risks to the patient’s health.

4. Alloplastic graft

It is a synthetic graft made with porous artificial materials that promote the development of the patient’s bone tissue.

Generally, grafts of this type are made from bioactive crystals, polymers or ceramics, so they are perfect in case of rejection of others of biological origin.

The implementation of any of these types of graft will be recommended by the dentist considering the specific conditions of the damage being treated, so doctor-patient communication is very important so that the latter is aware of the process and recovery time.

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